潘霍華論戰爭對教會介入公共議題的啟迪/李文耀

撮要

本文有兩個要旨:(1)以戰爭作為切入點,探討潘霍華的倫理觀有何轉變和特色;(2)借助潘霍華的分析,思考教會應否及如何介入公共議題的問題。本文點出,潘霍華在不同的時期中對戰爭有不同的看法,然而在處理問題的進路上基本是沒有轉變的。這個觀察突出潘霍華的倫理學的特色;上帝的命令既是絕對的,也是具體的。潘霍華的倫理學骨子裏是一種神學人類學,它關心到我們如何成為一個人(becoming a person )。上帝在基督裏啟示自己是「為我們」、「為他者」的三一上帝,人既按着上帝的形象被造,便要「為我們」、「為他者」而活。這是上帝的旨意,具體地表達在祂的命令中—愛上帝與愛鄰舍。故此,介入公共事務是必須的。從潘霍華論戰爭之中,我們看到教會介入公共議題的必須性,它的理論根據,以及各種介入的方法。

 

ABSTRACT

This article aims at: (1) investigating the ethics of Dietrich Bonhoeffer under the perspective of war, probing its changes and character, and through his analysis (2) reflecting the rationales and possible approaches of church’s intervention in public issues. Our analysis reveals that while on the matter of war Bonhoeffer has different opinions at different stages, his approach to ethical problems remains fundamentally unchanged. This observation highlights the character of Bonhoeffer’s ethics: the command of God is simultaneously absolute and concrete. Basically, his ethics is a kind of theological anthropology and its concern rests on becoming a person in the image of God. The triune God reveals Himself in Jesus Christ as God “for us “ and “for us” and “for the other”. This is the will of God which is concretely expressed in His command – we shall love the Lord our God and our neighbor. In this sense, Christian’s intervention in public affairs is mandatory. From the exposition of war by Bonhoeffer, one can see the necessity of church’s intervention in public issues, its theoretical rationales and different ways of intervention.

原載於《建道學刊》39期(2013),頁117-148。

作者簡介

李文耀

神學系副教授