The Multiple Streams Of Skeptical Influence On The Incipient Biblical Criticism In Late 17Th Century(懷疑主義對十七世紀末早期聖經批評學的影響之追溯) / 張雲開






While mainstream historiography generally assumes a twin source for the origin of modern criticism: the Reformation and Enlightenment. This paper argues that the Reformation doctrine of Scripture alone is insufficient for the development of higher criticism unless accompanied by a strong measure of religious skepticism. This paper points out that there exists multiple sources of influences contributing to the development of modern biblical criticism, and one of the most important factors is the influence of skepticism, itself a confluence of several sources. The factors include the general breakdown of the utilization of commonplace thought in the academic training of scholars, the rediscovery of Pyrrhonic skepticism, its popularization by Montaigne and in the hands of the French Counter-Reformers in their controversies with Protestants, and the constant opposition by Jewish anti-Christian literary activities.