The Theology Of David Tracy Going Public(大衛特雷西的神學──公器神學)/ 張雲開


按照特雷西自己的說法,他的神學是「對現今神學無所適從的危機的回應」,因此他特別著重神學工作者所面對的現代處境和那孕育著他的神學傳統。特雷西認為二者必須透過相互的批判過程關連一起,以面對現今的多元觀,而特氏方法論的雜混兼容,亦可被視為要推敲出這個關連的方法之一。即使如此,這種關連能否落實本身仍是一個疑問,尤其是特氏書中所指的頭兩個「公眾」,根本是兩個互不隸屬的語言群體。在相互的批判過程中,其中一方往往無可避免地攻佔了另一方的空間。基督教的一些中心觀念在特氏的「重觀主義」下正正就產生了這種現象:語言表象和傳統基督教的語言(於特氏是指天主教)彷彿並無二致,但實質內涵卻被「第一公眾」的理念要求所取締改變。特氏以詮釋作為其方法論的進路,但他以經驗作為這詮釋工程的中心環節,面對當前多元化的現實迷宮,卻又顯得力不從心。這一點在其耶佛對話的嘗試之中可見一斑。特氏的神學工作及其努力都是有目可睹的,惟可惜並無法為福音派提供一個可行的「公眾」 理論基礎。



The theology of David Tracy is, in his own words, “a response to a crisis of theological self-understanding.” As such he is particularly attentive to both the contemporary situation which the theologian finds himself in, and the tradition out of which the theologian comes. The two must be correlated in a mutually critical fashion in order to respond to the present pluralistic situation. Tracy’s eclecticism may be seen as a result of his efforts to track down such a correlation. However, it is not clear if his position can be stably presented, especially when the first two publics in his discourse actually belong to two separate language communities. The rationality of one would inevitably tend to overrun the other in the process, as is evident when Tracy puts forth his revisionist interpretation of the central tenets of Christianity. Tracy’s linguistic garb may look the same as in traditional Christianity (in his case, Catholicism), but the substance has been subtly transmuted to provide adequacy for his first public. Tracy’s approach is hermeneutical, but the key to his hermeneutical enterprise, namely experience, is notoriously inadequate as a guide through the maze of contemporary pluralism. This may be seen in aspects of his inter-religious dialogue with Buddhism. Despite Tracy’s efforts and the promises of his program, evangelicalism must look elsewhere for a grounding of its interaction in and with the public.